Everyone probably knows what log homes are because they’re an enduring symbol of the American frontier and associated with various presidents, most notably Abraham Lincoln. You notice them in movies, on television, in newspaper ads. If you saw pictures of 100 different homes and only one of them was a log home, you’d probably recognize it immediately. And yet not all log homes look alike.
Log homes are made by stacking the logs horizontally to form the walls, using the same piece of wood for the outside and inside wall. These walls usually feature an exterior embellishment that characterizes log homes: corners. Corners are formed whenever two walls meet. There are three basic types of corner: interlocking, intersecting and overlapping.
Log homes originally were supported only at the corners, leaving a gap along the logs that was filled with chinking. Chinking became another signature feature of log homes. Even today, when almost all wall logs are supported along their entire horizontal surface, some homes still use chinking, both for aesthetics and to increase weatherproofing.
Timber framing is a kind of post-and-beam construction. Post-and-beam homes employ a big-timber framework, akin to a skeleton, of upright posts supporting horizontal beams. This interlocking frame supports the home’s load and transfers its weight to the foundation. Timber framing is a specialized version of post-and-beam that relies heavily on hand work to shape the timbers and fashion mortise-and-tenon joinery that is held in place with wooden pegs. Embellishments to the frame include chamfering, pendants and other decorative carvings. The frame’s interlocking configuration eliminates the need for load-bearing interior walls, assuring open rooms and, if desired, vaulted ceilings.
Timber homes also rarely offer a hint from the outside of the interior woodwork. This allows them to fit in with surrounding homes easier than log homes.
Incidentally, although timber framing is a very old craft, yesterday’s timber-frame homes were a far cry from the open-plan, cathedral-ceiling homes that many people associate with timber framing today. Timber-frame homes were the earliest permanent residences built in England’s American colonies and remained the dominant building method until the development of balloon framing, which required little skill to build and answered the growing demand for hastily built mass housing.
The main distinction between log homes and timber homes is how they use the wood. As a result, they achieve sharply different looks. And because timber homes can use a variety of exterior materials having nothing to do with the inside, they may not be recognizable as timber homes, whereas log homes are almost always identified as such, even though inside less log may be visible.
In general, log homes have a horizontal profile, and timber homes are vertical. These tendencies result from the way the logs are laid and the post-and-beam frame stood up.
For such remarkably different homes, timber and log homes have lots in common. Here are their most significant similarities.
When it comes right down to it, most people choose a log or a timber home because they like the look. The quality of the building material or workmanship may play a significant part (certainly it affects the cost/value), but the appearance of the structure seems to be its paramount appeal and evokes the emotional interest. As you strive to own one of these homes, focus most of your attention on getting the look you love.